J. R. Ali, G. M. Thompson, M. Zhou, and X. Song, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China, Lithos, vol.79, pp.475-489, 2005.

A. J. Barber, M. F. Ridd, and M. J. Crow, The origin, movement and assembly of the pre-Tertiary tectonic units of Thailand, The Geology of Thailand, pp.507-537, 2011.


S. M. Barr and P. Charusiri, The Geology of Thailand, pp.415-439, 2011.


A. Bercovici, S. Bourquin, J. Broutin, J. S. Steyer, B. Battail et al., Permian continental paleoenvironments in Southeastern Asia: New insights from the Luang Prabang Basin (Laos), J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.60, pp.197-211, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00779406

A. Boonsoong, Y. Panjasawatwong, and K. Metparsopsan, Petrochemistry and tectonic setting of mafic volcanic rocks in the Chon Daen-Wang Pong area, Isl. Arc, vol.20, pp.107-124, 2011.

H. H. Bui, V. K. Nguyen, Q. T. Nguyen, and V. D. Bui, Preliminary results on the deep water sedimentary facies of the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian deposits on Co To Archipelago, ASEAN Geosciences and Earth Resources for Sustainable Development. Presented at the GEOSEA XV, Publish House for Science and Technology, pp.197-198, 2018.

M. T. Bui, Magmatism in Vietnam. Vietnam Institute of Geosciences and Mineral resources, Vietnamese with English summary, p.368, 2010.

V. H. Bui, Y. Kim, N. X. Thanh, T. H. Tran, and K. Yi, Neoproterozoic deposition and Triassic metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks in the Nam Co Complex, Song Ma Suture Zone, NW Vietnam. Geosci. J, vol.22, pp.549-568, 2018.

S. Bunopas, The regional stratigraphy, paleogeographic and tectonic events of Thailand and continental Southeast Asia, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Stratigraphic Correlation of Southeast Asia. Department of Mineral Resources, pp.2-24, 1994.

C. Burrett, J. Long, and B. Stait, Early-Middle Palaeozoic biogeography of Asian terranes derived from Gondwana, Geol. Soc. Lond. Mem, vol.12, pp.163-174, 1990.


C. Burrett, M. Udchachon, and H. Thassanapak, Palaeozoic correlations and the palaeogeography of the Sibumasu (Shan-Thai) Terrane: a brief review, Res. Knowl, vol.2, pp.1-17, 2016.

C. Burrett, . Khin-zaw, S. Meffre, C. K. Lai, S. Khositanont et al., The configuration of Greater Gondwana-Evidence from LA ICPMS, U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons from the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic, 2014.

A. Carter, D. Roques, C. Bristow, and P. Kinny, Understanding Mesozoic accretion in Southeast Asia: Significance of Triassic thermotectonism (Indosinian orogeny) in Vietnam, Geology, vol.29, p.211, 2001.

P. Charusiri, V. Daorerk, D. Archibald, K. Hisada, and T. Ampaiwan, Geotectonic evolution of Thailand: A new synthesis, J. Geol. Soc. Thail, vol.1, pp.1-20, 2002.

J. Charvet, The Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Block: An overview, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.74, pp.198-209, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00796995


J. Charvet, L. Shu, M. Faure, F. Choulet, B. Wang et al., Structural development of the Lower Paleozoic belt of South China: Genesis of an intracontinental orogen, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.39, pp.309-330, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00509100

, Geological Map of the People's Republic of China Explanatory Notes, China Geological Survey, 2004.

L. R. Cocks and T. H. Torsvik, The dynamic evolution of the Palaeozoic geography of eastern Asia, Earth-Sci. Rev, vol.117, pp.40-79, 2013.


P. J. Cook and J. H. Shergold, Phosphate deposits of the world, p.408, 2005.

M. C. Dang, Lithological characteristics of the turbiditic Co To Formation and its geodynamics significance. Vietnam Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Vietnamese, p.101, 2013.

, Magmatic formations, Geology of Vietnam. Geological Survey of Vietnam, Vietnamese, p.360, 1995.

, Geology of Thailand. Department of Geology and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, p.508, 2014.

S. Q. Dinh, Petrographic characteristics and zircon U-Pb geochronology of granitogneiss rocks in the Chu Lai-Kham Duc area (Quang Nam province), Sci. Technol. Dev. J.-Nat, 2017.

. Sci, Vietnamese with English abstract, vol.1, pp.258-272

N. T. Doan and H. P. Ta, Some new data on the Upper Devonian sediments in Van Yen (Son La), Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.25, pp.269-274, 2003.

Y. Dong, X. Liu, M. Santosh, Q. Chen, X. Zhang et al., Neoproterozoic accretionary tectonics along the northwestern margin of the Yangtze Block, Constraints from zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry, 2012.

, Precambrian Res, pp.247-274

A. E. Dovjikov, Explanatory note to the Geological map of North Vietnam at scale 1:500.000. General Department of Geology, p.669, 1965.

X. H. Duong, Characteristics fossils in the North Vietnam. Publish House for Science and Technology, Vietnamese, p.600, 1980.

M. Faure, C. Lepvrier, V. Van-nguyen, T. Van-vu, W. Lin et al., The South China Block-Indochina collision: where, when, and how?, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.79, pp.260-274, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00863348

M. Faure, W. Lin, Y. Chu, and C. Lepvrier, Triassic tectonics of the southern margin of the South China Block, Comptes Rendus Geosci, vol.348, pp.5-14, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01188798


M. Faure, V. V. Nguyen, L. T. Hoai, and C. Lepvrier, Early Paleozoic or Early-Middle Triassic collision between the South China and Indochina Blocks: The controversy resolved? Structural insights from the Kon Tum massif (Central Vietnam), J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.166, pp.162-180, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01878007

M. Faure, L. Shu, B. Wang, J. Charvet, F. Choulet et al., Intracontinental subduction: a possible mechanism for the Early Palaeozoic Orogen of SE China, Terra Nova, vol.21, pp.360-368, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00420901

R. H. Findlay and P. T. Trinh, The Structural Setting of the Song Ma Region, Vietnam and the Indochina-South China Plate Boundary Problem, Gondwana Res, vol.1, pp.11-33, 1997.

, , pp.70003-70007

H. Fontaine and D. R. Workman, Review of the geology and mineral resources of Kampuchea, Laos and Vietnam, Proceedings of the Third Regional Conference on Geology and Mineral Resources of Southeast Asia, pp.539-603, 1978.

J. Fromaget, Etudes géologiques sur le Nord-Ouest du Tonkin et le Nord du Haut Laos (2e et 3e parties), 1952.

J. Fromaget, L'Indochine française, sa structure géologique, ses roches, ses mines et leurs relations possibles avec la tectonique, p.140, 1941.

M. B. Fyhn, T. D. Cuong, B. H. Hoang, J. Hovikoski, M. Olivarius et al., Linking Paleogene rifting and inversion in the northern Song Hong and Beibuwan basins, Vietnam, with left-lateral motion on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone, 2018.

M. B. Fyhn, P. F. Green, S. C. Bergman, J. Van-itterbeeck, T. V. Tri et al., Cenozoic deformation and exhumation of the Kampot Fold Belt and implications for south Indochina tectonics, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.121, pp.5278-5307, 2016.


M. B. Fyhn, T. B. Thomsen, N. Keulen, C. Knudsen, M. Rizzi et al., Detrital zircon ages and heavy mineral composition along the Gulf of Tonkin -Implication for the provenance of reservoir sand in the Yinggehai-Song Hong Basin, Mar. Pet. Geol, vol.101, pp.162-179, 2019.

C. J. Gardner, I. T. Graham, E. Belousova, G. W. Booth, and A. Greig, Evidence for Ordovician subduction-related magmatism in the Truong Son terrane, SE Laos: Implications for Gondwana evolution and porphyry Cu exploration potential, 2017.

, Gondwana Res, vol.44, pp.139-156

Y. G. Gatinsky and C. S. Hutchison, Cathaysia, Gondwanaland, and the Paleotethys in the evolution of continental Southeast Asia. Presented at the GEOSEA V, Geological Society of Malaysia, pp.179-199, 1986.

Y. G. Gatinsky, V. T. Tran, E. N. Isaev, V. C. Le, A. Kamenetsky et al., On the tectonic zoning in North Vietnam, J. Geol, pp.1-41, 1970.

J. W. Geissman, T. C. Cung, and T. Borgfeldt, Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and anisotrophy of magnetic susceptibility data from Upper Permian and Lower Triassic volcanic sequences from Northwest Vietnam and their bearing on the accretion history of Southeast Asia. Presented at the GEOSEA XV, Publish House for Science and Technology, pp.128-130, 2018.

J. Golonka, Global plate tectonics and paleogeography of Southeast Asia. Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, 2006.

, Paleozoic paleoenvironment and paleolithofacies maps of Godwana, 2012.

P. Gonez, H. H. Nguyen, H. P. Ta, G. Clément, and P. Janvier, The oldest flora of the South China Block, and the stratigraphic bearings of the plant remains from the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.43, pp.51-63, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00721306


J. Gubler, Estudes gesologiques au Cambodge occidental, Bull. Serv. Géol. Indochine, p.176, 1935.

X. B. Ha, V. D. Vuong, V. L. Nguyen, Q. T. Bui, P. Khampha et al., Geological and Mineral resources map of Southern Laos at scale 1:500,000 -Final report for evaluation of bauxite and other deposits of Southern Laos. Laos PDR Department of Geology and Mines and INTERGEO, Vietnam Geology and Mineral Resources Department, 2009.

S. Hada, Rift-drift history and the amalgamation of Shan-Thai and Indochina/East Malaya blocks, Gondwana Dispers. Asian Accretion-IGCP 321 Final Results, pp.67-87, 1999.

J. A. Halpin, H. T. Tran, C. Lai, S. Meffre, A. J. Crawford et al., U-Pb zircon geochronology and geochemistry from NE Vietnam: A 'tectonically disputed' territory between the Indochina and South China blocks, Gondwana Res, vol.34, pp.254-273, 2016.


H. Hara, M. Kunii, K. Hisada, Y. Kamata, K. Ueno et al., Provenance and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from Permo-Triassic marine sediments in Northern Thailand: records of the Sukhothai Arc evolution and the Paleo-Tethys subduction. Presented at the 4th symposium of the International Geosciences Programme (IGCP), pp.20-23, 2015.

H. He, Y. Wang, X. Qian, and Y. Zhang, The Bangxi-Chenxing tectonic zone in Hainan Island (South China) as the eastern extension of the Song Ma-Ailaoshan zone: Evidence of late Paleozoic and Triassic igneous rocks, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.164, pp.274-291, 2018.

D. Helmcke, The orogenic evolution (Permian-triassic) of central Thailand. Implications on paleogeographic models for mainland SE-Asia, vol.147, pp.83-91, 1984.

N. Hoang and M. Flower, Petrogenesis of Cenozoic Basalts from Vietnam: Implication for Origins of a "Diffuse Igneous Province, J. Petrol, vol.39, pp.369-395, 1998.


J. Hoffet, Étude géologique sur le centre de l'Indochine entre Tourane et le Mékong, Annam central et Bas-Laos), par Josué-Heilmann Hoffet. impr. Protat frères, p.154, 1933.

C. S. Hutchison, Geological Evolution of South-East Asia. Geological Society of Malaysia, p.433, 2007.

C. S. Hutchison, The Palaeo-Tethyan Realm and Indosinian Orogenic System of Southeast Asia, NATO ASI Series, pp.585-643, 1989.


A. Izokh, G. Polyakov, T. T. Hoa, P. Balykin, and N. T. Phuong, Permian-Triassic ultramafic-mafic magmatism of northern Vietnam and southern China as expression of plume magmatism, Russ. Geol. Geophys. Geol. Geofiz, vol.46, pp.922-932, 2005.

A. E. Izokh, T. H. Tran, T. P. Ngo, and Q. H. Tran, Ophiolite ultramafic-mafic associations in the northern structure of the Kon Tum block (central Vietnam), J. Geol, pp.20-26, 2006.

C. Jacob, Études geologiques dans le Nord-Annam et le Tonkin, Bulletin du Service geologique de l'Indochine X fasc 1, 1921.

P. Janvier, P. Racheboeuf, H. N. Huu, and T. D. Nhat, Devonian fish (Placodermi, Antiarcha) from Tra Ban Island, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.7, 2003.

P. Janvier, T. D. Thanh, T. H. Phuong, and D. N. Truong, The Devonian vertebrates (Placodermi, Sarcopterygii) from Central Vietnam and their bearing on the Devonian palaeogeography of Southeast Asia, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.15, pp.393-406, 1997.

, , pp.20-22

T. Kamvong, . Khin-zaw, S. Meffre, R. Maas, H. Stein et al., Adakites in the Truong Son and Loei fold belts, Thailand and Laos: Genesis and implications for geodynamics and metallogeny, Gondwana Res, vol.26, pp.165-184, 2014.


K. Zaw, S. Meffre, C. Lai, C. Burrett, M. Santosh et al., Tectonics and metallogeny of mainland Southeast Asia -A review and contribution, Gondwana Res, vol.26, pp.5-30, 2014.


S. C. Kun and T. S. Say, Apercu sur la Geologie es les Resources Minerales du Kampuchea. Presented at the First Conference on the Geology of Indochina, pp.533-534, 1986.

J. Laveine, B. Ratanasthien, S. Sitirach, and D. Demarque, The Carboniferous flora of northeastern Thailand : Additional documentation from the Na Duang-Na Klang basin, Rev. Paleobiologie, vol.28, pp.315-331, 2009.

D. B. Le and M. T. Bui, History of tectono-magmatic evolution in Vietnam, Vietnamese, pp.388-395, 2008.

P. H. Leloup, N. Arnaud, R. Lacassin, J. R. Kienast, T. M. Harrison et al., New constraints on the structure, thermochronology, and timing of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, SE Asia, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.106, pp.6683-6732, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01891116

P. H. Leloup, P. Tapponnier, R. Lacassin, and M. P. Searle, Discussion on the role of the Red River shear zone, Yunnan and Vietnam, in the continental extrusion of, SE Asia Journal, vol.163, pp.1253-1260, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00311693


C. Lepvrier, M. Faure, V. N. Van, T. V. Vu, W. Lin et al., Northdirected Triassic nappes in Northeastern Vietnam (East Bac Bo), J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.41, pp.56-68, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00563957

C. Lepvrier, H. Maluski, V. Van-tich, A. Leyreloup, P. Truong-thi et al., The Early Triassic Indosinian orogeny in Vietnam (Truong Son Belt and Kontum Massif); implications for the geodynamic evolution of Indochina. Tectonophysics, Asthenosphere-Lithosphere Dynamic Responses to Tethyan Plate Collisions, vol.393, pp.87-118, 2004.

C. Lepvrier, N. Van-vuong, H. Maluski, P. Truong-thi, and T. Van-vu, Indosinian tectonics in Vietnam, Comptes Rendus-Geosci, vol.340, pp.94-111, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00411591


P. Li, G. Rui, C. Junwen, and G. Ye, Paleomagnetic analysis of eastern Tibet: implications for the collisional and amalgamation history of the Three Rivers Region, SW, China. J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.24, pp.291-310, 2004.

H. Liu, T. Peng, and X. Guo, Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the coexistent N-MORB-and SSZ-type ophiolites in Babu area (SW China) and tectonic implications, J. Geol. Soc, vol.175, pp.667-678, 2018.

J. Liu, M. D. Tran, Y. Tang, Q. L. Nguyen, T. H. Tran et al., Permo-Triassic granitoids in the northern part of the Truong Son belt, NW Vietnam: Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications, Gondwana Res, vol.22, pp.628-644, 2012.

Y. P. Liu, L. Ye, C. Y. Li, B. Song, T. S. Li et al., Discovery of the Neoproterozoic magmatics in southeastern Yunnan: Evidence from SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and lithogeochemistry, Acta Petrol. Sin, vol.22, pp.916-926, 2006.

J. A. Long, C. F. Burrett, P. K. Ngan, and P. Janvier, A new bothriolepid antiarch (Pisces, Placodermi) from the Devonian of Do Son peninsula, northern Vietnam. Alcheringa Australas, J. Palaeontol, vol.14, pp.181-194, 1990.

D. K. Loydell, M. Udchachon, and C. Burrett, Llandovery (lower Silurian) graptolites from the Sepon Mine, Truong Son Terrane, central Laos and their palaeogeographical significance, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.170, pp.360-374, 2019.


K. Ludwig, User's Manual for Isoplot 3, Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication, vol.70, issue.4, 2008.

H. Maluski, C. Lepvrier, A. Leyreloup, V. V. Tich, and P. T. Thi, 40Ar-39Ar geochronology of the charnockites and granulites of the Kan Nack complex, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.25, pp.653-677, 2005.


T. Manaka, . Khin-zaw, S. Meffre, P. M. Vasconcelos, and S. D. Golding, The Ban Houayxai epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Northern Lao PDR: Mineralization related to the Early Permian arc magmatism of the Truong Son Fold Belt, Gondwana Res, vol.26, pp.185-197, 2014.


I. Metcalfe, Tectonic evolution of Sundaland, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, vol.63, pp.27-60, 2017.

I. Metcalfe, Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion: Tectonic and palaeogeographic evolution of eastern, Tethys. J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.66, pp.1-33, 2013.


T. Minezaki, K. Hisada, H. Hara, and Y. Kamata, Tectono-stratigraphy of Late Carboniferous to Triassic successions of the Khorat Plateau Basin, Indochina Block, northeastern Thailand: Initiation of the Indosinian Orogeny by collision of the Indochina and South China blocks, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.170, pp.208-224, 2019.


C. K. Morley, Understanding Sibumasu in the context of ribbon continents, Gondwana Res, vol.64, pp.184-215, 2018.

E. A. Nagy, H. Maluski, C. Lepvrier, U. Schärer, P. T. Thi et al., Geodynamic Significance of the Kontum Massif in Central Vietnam: Composite 40Ar/39Ar and U -Pb Ages from Paleozoic to Triassic, J. Geol, vol.109, pp.755-770, 2001.


N. Nakano, Y. Osanai, N. T. Minh, T. Miyamoto, Y. Hayasaka et al., Discovery of high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in northern Vietnam: Constraints on the Permo-Triassic Indochinese continental collision tectonics, Comptes Rendus -Geosci, vol.340, pp.127-138, 2008.

N. Nakano, Y. Osanai, M. Owada, T. N. Nam, P. Charusiri et al., Tectonic evolution of high-grade metamorphic terranes in central Vietnam: Constraints from large-scale monazite geochronology, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.73, pp.520-539, 2013.


N. Nakano, Y. Osanai, M. Owada, T. N. Nam, T. Toyoshima et al., Geologic and metamorphic evolution of the basement complexes in the, Gondwana Res, vol.12, pp.438-453, 2007.

N. M. Nghiem, Presented at the GEOSEA XV, Publish House of Science and Technology, pp.34-37, 2018.

X. T. Ngo, T. B. Nguyen, H. P. Ta, and N. T. Doan, Tectonic nature of the meta-mafic rocks of Huoi Hao Formation in Chieng Khuong, Son La, Vietnamese Nguyen, vol.356, pp.19-29, 2013.

C. D. Nguyen, H. S. Duong, D. C. Bui, and M. T. Bui, U-Pb zircon SHRIMP isotopic age of Nam Giai granitoid in Phu Hoat (Nghe An) and their geodynamic significance., in: Geology and Mineral Resources, 50th Anniversary of Vietnam Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources. Vietnam Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, pp.34-39, 2015.

C. H. Nguyen, A new collection of Late Permian flora discovered in the Yen Duyet Formation at Xom Trao, Vietnamese, pp.72-79, 1984.

H. H. Nguyen, D. H. Nguyen, and D. K. Nguyen, New data on Upper Silurian and Eifel-Givetian sediments in the Thanh Son -Thanh Thuy map sheet, Vietnamese, pp.54-55, 1998.

M. Q. Nguyen, A. D. Vu, and M. H. Le, Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous microfossils from cherts in Truong Son Fold Belt, Central Vietnam: Geological framework implications, J. Geol. Ser. A, pp.68-77, 2016.

N. H. Nguyen, Geological and Mineral resources map of Nam Bo Plain sheet series at scale 1:200,000 -. Geological survey of Vietnam, 1996.

Q. M. Nguyen, Q. Feng, J. Zi, T. Zhao, H. T. Tran et al., Cambrian intra-oceanic arc trondhjemite and tonalite in the Tam Ky-Phuoc Son Suture Zone, central Vietnam: Implications for the early Paleozoic assembly of the Indochina Block, Gondwana Res, 2019.

T. B. Nguyen, D. T. Quach, T. T. Ho, D. D. Tran, D. C. Nguyen et al., province and its implications. Presented at the GEOSEA XV, Science and Technology, p.328, 2018.

T. G. Nguyen and T. H. Tran, Multiple magma intrusions along the margin of Nong Son Mesozoic basin, central Viet Nam and its regional significance, Vietnamese, pp.37-49, 2016.

V. L. Nguyen, Upper Paleozoic in Vietnam. Publish House for Science and Technology, Vietnamese, p.532, 1985.

V. N. Nguyen, Q. C. Hoang, X. B. Ha, D. N. Le, T. B. Nguyen et al., U-Pb zircon age of granitoids of the Huoi Tong complex. Presented at the Commemorative conference of 60 years of Vietnam Geology, Department of Geology and Mineral resources of Vietnam, pp.164-170, 2005.

V. P. Nguyen, The biostratigraphic zonation of Silurian graptolites in Vietnam, J. Geol, pp.10-18, 2000.

V. T. Nguyen, Geological and mineral resource map of the M'Drak sheet series, scale 1:50,000. The Department of Geology and Minerals of Vietnam, 1998.

V. T. Nguyen, Geological and Mineral resources map of the Hue-Quang Ngai sheet series at scale 1:200,000. The Department of Geology and Minerals of Vietnam, 1996.

V. V. Nguyen, B. Hansen, K. Wemmer, T. T. Ta, and H. C. Mai, Sm/Nd isochronous age of ultramafic rocks within the Song Hong shear zone and its geodynamic implications, J. Earth Sci, pp.97-102, 2005.

V. V. Nguyen, B. T. Hansen, K. Wemmer, C. Lepvrier, V. T. Vu et al., U/Pb and Sm/Nd dating on ophiolitic rocks of the Song Ma suture zone (northern Vietnam): Evidence for upper paleozoic paleotethyan lithospheric remnants, J. Geodyn, vol.69, pp.140-147, 2013.

X. B. Nguyen, V. C. Duong, and V. L. Trinh, Tectonic zones of continental southern Viet Nam, Vietnamese, 2015.

X. K. Nguyen, Some new results of study on sedimentary formations in the Co To archipelago, Geol. Miner. Resour. -Inst. Geol. Miner. Resour, pp.55-60, 2000.

X. T. Nguyen and V. T. Tran, Geological formation and geodynamics of Vietnam. Geological Survey of Vietnam, Vietnamese, p.274, 1992.

Y. Osanai, Metamorphic evolution of high-pressure and ultrahigh-temperature granulites from the, Gondwana Res, vol.7, pp.1360-1363, 2004.

Y. Osanai, N. Nakano, M. Owada, T. N. Nam, T. Miyamoto et al., Collision zone metamorphism in Vietnam and adjacent South-eastern Asia: Proposition for Trans Vietnam Orogenic Belt, J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci, vol.103, pp.226-241, 2008.

M. Owada, Y. Osanai, T. Hokada, and N. Nakano, Timing of metamorphism and formation of garnet granite in the, J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci, vol.101, pp.324-328, 2006.

M. Owada, Y. Osanai, N. Nakano, T. Adachi, I. Kitano et al., Late Permian plume-related magmatism and tectonothermal events in the Kontum Massif, central Vietnam, J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci, vol.111, pp.181-195, 2016.


D. L. Pham, M. C. Dang, N. D. Pham, T. A. Bui, T. T. Cao et al., Petrological characteristics of volcanic formation in Dong Trau Formation, North Vietnam. Geol. Miner, 2015.

H. L. Pham and T. T. Ta, Tectonic evolution history of Vietnam and adjacent areas, Geol. Resour. Environ. South Vietnam -South Vietnam Mapp. Div, pp.17-22, 2003.

K. N. Pham, The Cambrian system in Vietnam. The Science and Technology Publishing House, Vietnamese with English summary, p.216, 2008.

T. H. Pham, T. D. Nguyen, T. B. Nguyen, T. M. Nguyen, and M. Pham, U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition of zircon and bulk rock geochemistry of the Dai Loc granitoid complex in Kontum massif: Implications for early Paleozoic crustal evolution in Central Vietnam, J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci, vol.111, pp.326-336, 2016.

T. H. Pham, L. M. Son, L. T. Dung, and N. X. Thanh, 470 Ma aged gabbro-diabase in Nui Nua area of Song Ma structure zone, J. Geol. Ser, 2014.

C. T. Phan, N. L. Nguyen, and Q. H. Le, Geological map of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam at scale 1:1,500,00. Vietnam Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, 2009.

T. T. Phan, Indosinia geoblock in the Indosinian tectonic movement in Indochina, J. Geol, pp.317-318, 1995.

V. Q. Phan and H. H. Hoang, Tectonic structure and geodynamic features of the Song Hong basin, Petrovietnam J, pp.26-33, 2008.

G. V. Polyakov, T. Y. Nguyen, T. H. Tran, T. P. Ngo, A. E. Izokh et al., Ultramafic-mafic igenous formations of North Vietnam (Review on the study of Institute of Geology, SB RAS and Institute of Geological Sciences, J. Geol.-Ser. B, pp.3-11, 1983.

I. U. Pusharovsky, Some opinions on the tectonics of North Vietnam. Geotectonica, 1965.

X. Qian, Q. Feng, Y. Wang, C. Chonglakmani, and D. Monjai, Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the mafic rocks along the Luang Prabang zone: Carboniferous back-arc setting in northwest Laos, Lithos, vol.245, pp.60-75, 2016.


B. Rattanasathien, The Geology of Thailand, The Geological Society, pp.393-414, 2011.

J. Ren, B. Niu, J. Wang, X. Jin, L. Zhao et al., Advances in research of Asian geology-A summary of 1:5M International Geological Map of Asia project, Geological Evolution of Asia, vol.72, pp.3-11, 2013.


M. F. Ridd, A. J. Barber, and . Crow, The geology of Thailand, The Geological Society, p.626, 2011.

J. F. Rigby, Upper Palaeozoic floras of SE Asia, in: Biogeography and Geological Evolution of SE Asia, pp.73-82, 1998.

M. Rizzi, M. B. Fyhn, N. H. Schovsbo, C. Korte, J. Hovikoski et al., Hinterland setting and composition of an Oligocene deep rift-lake sequence, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam: Implications for petroleum source rock deposition, Mar. Pet. Geol, vol.111, pp.496-509, 2020.

F. Roger, P. H. Leloup, M. Jolivet, R. Lacassin, P. T. Trinh et al., Long and complex thermal history of the Song Chay metamorphic dome (Northern Vietnam) by multi-system geochronology, Tectonophysics, vol.321, pp.449-466, 2000.

, , pp.85-93

F. Roger, H. Maluski, A. Leyreloup, C. Lepvrier, and P. Truong-thi, U-Pb dating of high temperature metamorphic episodes in the Kon Tum Massif (Vietnam), J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.30, pp.565-572, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00404975

C. Rossignol, S. Bourquin, M. Poujol, E. Hallot, M. Dabard et al., The volcaniclastic series from the Luang Prabang Basin, Laos: A witness of a triassic magmatic arc?, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.120, pp.159-183, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01267172


A. Rushton, M. Williams, N. D. Phong, T. Komatsu, D. Siveter et al., Early Ordovician (Tremadocian and Floian) graptolites from the Than Sa Formation, northeast Vietnam, Geol. Mag, vol.155, pp.1442-1448, 2018.

A. Salam, . Khin-zaw, S. Meffre, J. Mcphie, and C. Lai, Geochemistry and geochronology of the Chatree epithermal gold-silver deposit: Implications for the tectonic setting of the Loei Fold Belt, central Thailand, Gondwana Res, vol.26, pp.198-217, 2014.


E. Saurin, Indochine, in: Lexique Stratigraphique International, III/6a. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1956.

E. Saurin, Études géologiques sur l'Indochine du sud-est (Sud-Annam, Cochinchine, Cambodge oriental), Indo-China, French. Service géologique. Bulletin, issue.1, 1935.

A. M. ?engör, D. Alt?ner, A. Cin, T. Ustaömer, and K. J. Hsü, Origin and assembly of the Tethyside orogenic collage at the expense of Gondwana Land, Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ, vol.37, pp.119-181, 1988.

J. G. Shellnutt, S. W. Denyszyn, and R. Mundil, Precise age determination of mafic and felsic intrusive rocks from the Permian Emeishan large igneous province, 2012.

, Gondwana Res, vol.22, pp.118-126

S. H. Shergold, Correlation of the Cambrian biostratigraphy of Northern and Central Australia with that of Southern and Eastern Asia, J. Geol, pp.48-61, 1995.

M. Shi, F. Lin, W. Fan, Q. Deng, F. Cong et al., Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry of granitoids in the Truong Son terrane, Vietnam: Tectonic and metallogenic implications, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.101, pp.101-120, 2015.


L. Shu, B. Wang, P. A. Cawood, M. Santosh, and Z. Xu, Early Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic intraplate tectonic and magmatic events in the Cathaysia Block, South China: Two tectonic events in South China, Tectonics, vol.34, pp.1600-1621, 2015.


M. Sone and I. Metcalfe, Parallel Tethyan sutures in mainland Southeast Asia: New insights for Palaeo-Tethys closure and implications for the Indosinian orogeny, Comptes Rendus -Geosci, vol.340, pp.166-179, 2008.

M. Sone, I. Metcalfe, and P. Chaodumrong, The Chanthaburi terrane of southeastern Thailand: Stratigraphic confirmation as a disrupted segment of the Sukhothai Arc, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.61, pp.16-32, 2012.

A. K. Srivastava and D. Agnihotri, Dilemma of late Palaeozoic mixed floras in Gondwana, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol, vol.298, pp.54-69, 2010.


H. P. Ta, Upper Devonian Conodont biostratigraphy in Vietnam, J. Geol.-Ser. B, pp.76-84, 1998.

H. P. Ta and V. M. Le, New data on the stratotype of Bo Hieng Formation, Vietnamese, pp.28-33, 1996.

P. Tapponnier, R. Lacassin, P. H. Leloup, U. Schärer, Z. Dalai et al., The Ailao Shan/Red River metamorphic belt: Tertiary left-lateral shear between Indochina and South China, Nature, vol.343, pp.431-437, 1990.

H. Thassanapak, M. Udchachon, and C. Burrett, Silurian radiolarians from the Sepon Mine, Truong Son Terrane, central Laos and their palaeogeographic and tectonic significance, 2018.

, Geol. Mag, vol.155, pp.1621-1640

H. Thassanapak, M. Udchachon, C. Burrett, and Q. Feng, Geochemistry of radiolarian cherts from a Late Devonian continental margin basin, Loei fold belt, Indo-China terrane, J. Earth Sci, vol.28, pp.29-50, 2017.

D. T. Tong, P. Janvier, and H. P. Ta, Fish suggests continental connections between the Indochina and South China blocks in Middle Devonian time, Geology, vol.24, p.571, 1996.

D. T. Tong, H. P. Ta, P. Janvier, H. H. Nguyen, T. T. Nguyen et al., Silurian and Devonian in Vietnam-Stratigraphy and facies, J. Geodyn, vol.69, pp.165-185, 2013.


D. T. Tong and K. Vu, Stratigraphic units of Vietnam, p.556, 2011.

T. H. Torsvik and L. R. Cocks, Earth history and palaeogeography, p.317, 2017.

D. L. Tran and X. B. Nguyen, Geological map of Vietnam at scale 1:500,000. General Department of Mines and Geology, 1988.

N. N. Tran, 750 Ma U-Pb zircon age of the Po Sen Complex and tectonic implication, Vietnamese, pp.11-16, 2003.

N. N. Tran, M. Toriumi, Y. Sano, K. Terada, and T. T. Ta, 2.9, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga zircons in orthogneiss south of the Red River shear zone in Viet Nam: evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb dating and tectonothermal implications, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.21, pp.743-753, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00988850

, , pp.89-94

Q. H. Tran, A. N. Bui, T. D. Pham, and V. H. Hoang, Some material composition characteristics of the mafic-ultramafic intrusions in Central Viet Nam, Central Highlands and North Viet Nam, J. Geol, pp.116-127, 2004.

T. Tran, Geological and Mineral resources map of the Kon Tum -Buon Ma Thuat sheet series at scale 1:200,000. Department of Geology and Mineral resources of Vietnam, 1998.

T. A. Tran, T. H. Tran, and V. Y. Nguyen, Geochemical features of Carboniferous-Permian intermediate volcanic formations in South Vietnam, Vietnamese, pp.18-27, 2005.

T. H. Tran, V. B. Dang, and D. T. Do, The existence of pillow basalts in Cao Bang-Lang Son area and its implications for the structure of Northeast Vietnam, J. Geol, pp.10-24, 2007.

T. H. Tran, A. E. Izokh, G. V. Polyakov, A. S. Borisenko, T. A. Tran et al., Permo-Triassic magmatism and metallogeny of Northern Vietnam in relation to the Emeishan plume, Russian Geology and Geophysics, vol.49, pp.480-491, 2008.

T. H. Tran and V. N. Nguyen, Tectonic position of intrusive complexes near the Muong Lay Town, Dien Bien province, Vietnamese, pp.43-45, 2006.

T. Tran, G. V. Polyakov, T. Tran, A. S. Borisenko, A. E. Izokh et al., Intraplate Magmatism and Metallogeny of North Vietnam, Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences, 2016.

T. H. Tran, K. Zaw, J. A. Halpin, T. Manaka, S. Meffre et al., The Tam Ky-Phuoc Son Shear Zone in central Vietnam: Tectonic and metallogenic implications, Gondwana Res, 2014.

V. B. Tran, Mineral resource prospecting and geological mapping of the middle Central Laos at the scale 1:200,000. Department of Geology and Mines, 2000.

V. T. Tran, Geology of Vietnam: Northern part. Sciences and Technics Publishing House, Vietnamese, p.355, 1977.

V. T. Tran, Geology of Vietnam (North part). General Department of Geology, p.80, 1979.

V. T. Tran, C. D. Do, Q. L. Dang, D. T. Quach, and V. H. Nguyen, Coal-forming episodes in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos PDR. Presented at the 5th Symposium of the International Geosciences Programme (IGCP) 589, pp.50-53, 2016.

V. T. Tran, M. Faure, V. V. Nguyen, C. Lepvrier, and P. Charusiri, Paleozoic tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Indochina and adjacent areas, in: ASEAN Geosciences and Earth Resources for Sustainable Development. Presented at the 15th Regional congress on geology, mineral and energy resources of Southeast Asia (GEOSEA XV), Publish House for Science and Technology, pp.124-127, 2018.

V. T. Tran, T. S. Ngo, K. K. Phung, Q. T. Nguyen, and M. T. Vu, Permian regional geology in Western Indochina, implications for paleotethys active margin of SE-Asia. Presented at the 4th Symposium of the International Geosciences Programme (IGCP) 589, pp.81-82, 2015.

V. T. Tran and K. Vu, Geology and Earth Resources of Vietnam, Science and Technology, p.646, 2011.

M. Udchachon, H. Thassanapak, and C. Burrett, Palaeoenvironment and palaeogeography of Middle and Upper Devonian strata from the Loei fold belt, Indochina terrane (northeast Thailand), Palaeobiodiversity Palaeoenvironments, vol.97, pp.497-516, 2017.


M. Udchachon, H. Thassanapak, Q. Feng, and C. Burrett, Palaeoenvironmental implications of geochemistry and radiolarians from Upper Devonian chert/shale sequences of the Truong Son fold belt, Laos: Geochemistry of Late Devonian Chert/Shale Sequences from Laos, Geol. J, vol.52, pp.154-173, 2015.


K. Ueno and T. Charoentitirat, Carboniferous and Permian, The Geological Society, pp.71-136, 2011.

K. Ueno, A. Miyahigashi, Y. Kamata, M. Kato, T. Charoentitirat et al., Geotectonic implications of Permian and Triassic carbonate successions in the Central Plain of Thailand, J. Asian Earth Sci., Geological Anatomy of East and South Asia, vol.61, pp.33-50, 2012.

, United Nations, 1993. Cambodia, Atlast of Mineral Resources of the ESCAP Region

, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Atlast of Mineral Resources of the ESCAP Region, 1990.

T. Usuki, C. Y. Lan, K. L. Wang, and H. Y. Chiu, Linking the Indochina block and Gondwana during the Early Paleozoic: Evidence from U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of detrital zircons, Tectonophysics, vol.586, pp.145-159, 2013.


T. Usuki, C. Lan, T. Yui, Y. Iizuka, T. Van-vu et al., Early Paleozoic medium-pressure metamorphism in central Vietnam: evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages, Geosci. J, vol.13, p.245, 2009.

K. Vu, D. T. Dao, D. B. Le, D. T. Tong, T. T. Tran et al., Lexicon of geological units of Viet Nam, Science and Technology, p.430, 2000.

V. T. Vu, A. Leyreloup, H. Maluski, C. Lepvrier, C. Lo et al., Metamorphic evolution of pelitic-semipelitic granulites in the Kon Tum massif (south-central Vietnam), SI : Geodynamics of Vietnam, vol.69, pp.148-164, 2013.


K. Wakita and I. Metcalfe, Papers presented at the Fourth Annual General Meeting of IGCP Project No, J. Asian Earth Sci, issue.411, pp.679-702, 2005.


P. Wang, C. Lo, C. Lan, S. Chung, T. Lee et al., Thermochronology of the PoSen complex, northern Vietnam: Implications for tectonic evolution in SE Asia, J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.40, pp.1044-1055, 2011.


Q. Wang, J. Deng, C. Li, G. Li, L. Yu et al., The boundary between the Simao and Yangtze blocks and their locations in Gondwana and Rodinia: Constraints from detrital and inherited zircons, Gondwana Res, vol.26, pp.438-448, 2014.


Y. Wang, X. Qian, P. A. Cawood, H. Liu, Q. Feng et al., Closure of the East Paleotethyan Ocean and amalgamation of the Eastern Cimmerian and Southeast Asia continental fragments, Earth-Science Reviews, vol.186, pp.195-230, 2018.


T. Wongwanich and C. Burrett, The Lower Paleozoic of Thailand, J. Geol. Soc. Thail, pp.21-29, 1983.

Y. Xu, P. A. Cawood, and Y. Du, Intraplate orogenesis in response to Gondwana assembly: Kwangsian orogeny, South China, Am. J. Sci, vol.316, pp.329-362, 2016.

D. P. Yan, M. F. Zhou, C. Y. Wang, and B. Xia, Structural and geochronological constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Dulong-Song Chay tectonic dome in Yunnan province, SW China. J. Asian Earth Sci, vol.28, pp.332-353, 2006.


C. Yan, L. Shu, M. Faure, Y. Chen, and R. Huang, Time constraints on the closure of the Paleo-South China Ocean and the Neoproterozoic assembly of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks: Insight from new detrital zircon analyses, Gondwana Research, vol.73, pp.175-189, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02139064

K. Yoshida, M. Sugawara, and S. Hada, A preliminary study of the provenance change of Middle-Upper Paleozoic clastic rocks in the Truong Son region, Central Vietnam, Geodynamics Processess of Gondwana. Presented at the IGCP Project, vol.411, pp.26-29, 2002.

G. Young and P. Janvier, Early-middle Palaeozoic vertebrate faunas in relation to Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion, pp.115-140, 1999.

R. Y. Zhang, C. Lo, S. Chung, M. Grove, S. Omori et al., Origin and Tectonic Implication of Ophiolite and Eclogite in the Song Ma Suture Zone between the South China and Indochina Blocks, J. Metamorph. Geol, vol.31, pp.49-62, 2013.

R. Y. Zhang, C. Lo, X. Li, S. Chung, T. T. Anh et al., U-Pb dating and tectonic implication of ophiolite and metabasite from the Song Ma suture zone, northern Vietnam, Am. J. Sci, vol.314, pp.649-678, 2014.

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, P. D. Clift, Y. Yan, Y. Zhang et al., Paleozoic Tectonic Setting and Paleogeographic Evolution of the Qin-Fang Region, 2018.

, Geophys. Geosystems, vol.19, pp.3962-3979

, Resources, Writing -Original Draft, Writing -Review & Editing, Supervision, Project administration ? Michel Faure: Methodology, Validation, Verification, Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Writing -Review & Editing ? Vuong Van Nguyen: Methodology, Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Writing -Original Draft, Writing -Review & Editing ? Hoang Huy Bui: Investigation, Writing -Original Draft, Writing -Review & Editing, Visualization ? Michael Bryld Wessel Fyhn: Investigation, Resources, Writing -Review & Editing ? Tuan Quang Nguyen: Investigation, Visualization ? Claude Lepvrier: Writing -Review & Editing ? Tonny B. Thomsen: Formal analysis, Resources ? Kenichiro Tani: Formal analysis, Resources ? Punya Charusiri: Writing -Review & Editing