ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO$_2$ water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales

Chunjing Qiu 1 Dan Zhu 1 Philippe Ciais 1 Bertrand Guenet 1 Gerhard Krinner 2 Shushi Peng 3 Mika Aurela 4 Christian Bernhofer 5 Christian Brümmer 6 Syndonia Bret-Harte 7 Housen Chu 8 Jiquan Chen 9 Ankur Desai 10 Jiří Dušek 11 Eugénie Euskirchen 7 Krzysztof Fortuniak 12 Lawrence Flanagan 13 Thomas Friborg 14 Mateusz Grygoruk 15 Sébastien Gogo 16, 17 Thomas Grünwald 18 Birger Hansen 14 David Holl 19 Elyn Humphreys 20 Miriam Hurkuck 20 Gerard Kiely 21 Janina Klatt 22 Lars Kutzbach 19 Chloé Largeron 1 Fatima Laggoun-Défarge 16, 17 Magnus Lund 23 Peter Lafleur 24 Xuefei Li 25 Ivan Mammarella 25 Lutz Merbold 26 Mats Nilsson 27 Janusz Olejnik 28, 11 Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius 27 Walter Oechel Frans-Jan Parmentier Matthias Peichl 27 Norbert Pirk Olli Peltola 29 Włodzimierz Pawlak Daniel Rasse Janne Rinne Gaius Shaver Hans Schmid 30 Matteo Sottocornola Rainer Steinbrecher Torsten Sachs 31 Marek Urbaniak 28 Donatella Zona Klaudia Ziemblinska 28
17 Biogéosystèmes Continentaux - UMR7327
ISTO - Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans - UMR7327 : UMR7327
Abstract : Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO$_2$ fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC) observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of car-boxylation (V$_{cmax}$) being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-today variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP) ($r^2$ = 0.76; Nash– Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF = 0.76) and ecosystem respiration (ER, $r^2$ = 0.78, MEF = 0.75), with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, $r^2$ = 0.42, MEF = 0.14) and and net ecosystem CO$_2$ exchange (NEE, $r^2$ = 0.38, MEF = 0.26). Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high $r^2$ values (0.57–0.86). For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, $r^2$ values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT) variation was not well predicted ($r^2$ < 0.1), likely due to the uncertain water input to the peat from surrounding areas. However , the poor performance of WT simulation did not greatly affect predictions of ER and NEE. We found a significant relationship between optimized V$_{cmax}$ and latitude (temperature), which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average V$_{cmax}$ value.
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Geoscientific Model Development, European Geosciences Union, 2018, 11, pp.497 - 519. 〈10.5194/gmd-11-497-2018〉
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Chunjing Qiu, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Gerhard Krinner, et al.. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO$_2$ water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales. Geoscientific Model Development, European Geosciences Union, 2018, 11, pp.497 - 519. 〈10.5194/gmd-11-497-2018〉. 〈insu-01719357〉

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