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, Rf = aspect ratio of finite strain ellipse (after Fossen & Tikoff, 1973.

, = orientation of finite stretching direction (after Fossen and Tikoff, 1973.

, ?m = strain magnitude (Appendix Eq. (A6))

, where ?m = strain magnitude; ?1, ?2, ?3 = axes of the strain ellipsoid calculated 1345 after Fossen and Tikoff (1993), p.1347, 1346.