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Mineral-chemistry and stable-isotope constraints on the magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, and related PGE?(base-metal sulphide) mineralisation of the Mesoarchaean Baula-Nuasahi Complex, India

Abstract : The Baula-Nuasahi Complex, on the southern flank of the Singhbhum Archaean nucleus in north-eastern India, exposes a series of Mesoarchaean igneous suites. These are (1) a gabbro–anorthosite unit, which is petrographically homogeneous, although mineral-chemistry data hint at a subtle eastward differentiation; (2) a peridotite unit (with three chromitite layers) together with (3) a pyroxenite unit which display cumulate textures, modal layering, and (for the peridotite unit) differentiation trends in both mineralogy and mineral chemistry; and (4) the Bangur gabbro (~3.1 Ga), which defines an oblong intrusion, crosscutting the older igneous suites in the southern part of the complex, with a curvilinear NW-trending apophysis, 2 km long and up to 40 m wide. Magmatic breccia comprising ultramafic and chromitite wall-rock clasts in a gabbro matrix is exposed at the contact of the main Bangur gabbro body and also forms the entire Bangur gabbro apophysis. Concentrations of platinum-group minerals (PGMs) are found where the breccia contains abundant chromitite clasts, and two types of platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralisation are recognised. Type 1 (Pt 1.1–14.2, Pd 0.1–2.1 ppm, with an average Pt/Pd=8–9) is a “contact-type” mineralisation which occurs in the breccia at the contact between the Bangur intrusion and its ultramafic host. The PGMs—Pt alloys (isoferroplatinum) and sulphides (braggite, malanite)—are enclosed by pyroxene and plagioclase, reflecting a magmatic origin. Significant wall-rock assimilation by the magma (giving rise to the Bangur gabbro) is indicated by changes in pyroxene composition and by the presence of relicts of chromite (from the host) now altered to secondary “ferritchromite” in the contact zone. Type 2 PGE mineralisation (Pt 0.3–1.6, Pd 1.8–6.0 ppm, with Pt/Pd~0.5–3.0) is restricted to the breccia apophysis of the Bangur gabbro where it occurs in the breccia matrix, associated with an intense hydrothermal alteration which does not exist in the contact zone. PGMs (PGE arsenides, tellurides, bismuthides and antimonides) and, where present, base-metal sulphides (BMSs) form intergrowths with hydrous silicates, reflecting a hydrothermal origin. Oxygen isotope geothermometry documents the main stages of hydrothermal alteration within a decreasing temperature range between 700–1,000 and 500–600 °C, and oxygen, hydrogen and sulphur isotopes show that the hydrothermal fluids were derived from the magma rather than an external source. Pervasive hydrothermal alteration in the breccia apophysis likely represents upward channelling of late-magmatic fluids along a narrow, near-vertical, subplanar conduit which led away from the main magma chamber. We suggest that Type 2 mineralisation was produced by late-magmatic hydrothermal remobilisation and reconcentration of Type 1 PGE mineralisation, and that the composition of the hydrothermal fluids controlled whether BMSs were enriched along with the PGMs.
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https://hal-brgm.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03794451
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Soumis le : lundi 3 octobre 2022 - 11:44:29
Dernière modification le : lundi 3 octobre 2022 - 11:47:32

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Thierry Augé, Catherine Lerouge. Mineral-chemistry and stable-isotope constraints on the magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, and related PGE?(base-metal sulphide) mineralisation of the Mesoarchaean Baula-Nuasahi Complex, India. Mineralium Deposita, 2004, 39 (5-6), pp.583-607. ⟨10.1007/s00126-004-0428-x⟩. ⟨hal-03794451⟩

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