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Article Dans Une Revue Ore Geology Reviews Année : 2005

Late Variscan mineralizing systems related to orogenic processes: The French Massif Central

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Résumé

The French Massif Central constitutes an exceptional study area due to the diversity of its metallic deposits, its internal position in the Variscan belt, and the abundance of available geological, geophysical and metallogenic data obtained within the GeoFrance 3D programme. The deposits, formed towards the end of the orogenic evolution, represent the economic products of two distinct mineralizing systems, a Au ± Sb hydrothermal system and a W ± Sn and rare-metals magmatic–hydrothermal system, which were simultaneously active during a short time span between ca. 310 and 300 Ma. Two types of gold deposit can be distinguished on the basis of their depth of emplacement: “deep-seated” gold deposits developed under lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure during rapid exhumation, and “shallow” gold deposits emplaced under hydrostatic pressure with no significant uplift. Deposits of W ± Sn and rare-metals were emplaced in the upper crust during final crystallization of specialized magmas after their rapid ascent, perhaps enhanced by simultaneous regional uplift. The gold-bearing systems are associated with a complex network of re-activated crustal-scale faults initially active during the period between 335 and 315 Ma. Normal motion along the faults, coeval with 335 to 315 Ma granite–migmatite domes, played a major role in the 3D distribution of the hydrothermal plumbing system. Gold and related metals were carried within huge hydrothermal cells, which reached ca. 100 km by 10 km in area, and 30 km in depth. In contrast, granites rich in magmatophile elements (W, Sn, rare-metals) generated smaller hydrothermal cells (10 km by 10 km in area, and < 6 km deep). Extraction of metals, by both deep-seated fluids and specialized magmas, occurred during granulitization of the lower crust at 300 ± 15 Ma. In the French Massif Central, the genesis of the two late Carboniferous mineralizing systems coincided with the end of syn-collisional extension and ended just before post-collisional extension.
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hal-03764206 , version 1 (30-08-2022)

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Vincent Bouchot, Patrick Ledru, Catherine Lerouge, Jean-Luc Lescuyer, Jean-Pierre Milesi. Late Variscan mineralizing systems related to orogenic processes: The French Massif Central. Ore Geology Reviews, 2005, 27 (1-4), pp.169-197. ⟨10.1016/j.oregeorev.2005.07.017⟩. ⟨hal-03764206⟩

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