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Accessory minerals of the Cinovec (Zinnwald) granite cupola, Czech Republic: indicators of petrogenetic evolution

Abstract : A fully cored drillhole was drilled to 1596 m by the Czech Geological Survey in 1961–1963 in the central part of the Cínovec (Zinnwald) granite cupola. Two types of granite were intersected: zinnwaldite granite (ZG), observed down to a depth of 730 m, and protolithionite granite (PG), occurring to the end of the hole. The core was used to study the distribution and chemistry of: zircon, thorite, xenotime, monazite, bastnäsite, synchysite, REE oxyfluorides and hydroxyfluorides. Zircon occurs throughout the drillcore; it is strongly hydrated and fluorinated with about 18.5 wt.% H2O content in the apical part of the cupola. Its F-content reaches 2.41 wt.%. Within the PG, the F concentration in zircon is low. Zircon is poor in Th and U and its HfO2 contents vary from 1.01 to 5.24 wt.%. Thorite is common in the PG, becoming rare in the ZG. It is strongly hydrated (up to 14 wt.% H2O) and fluorinated (up to 2.04 wt.% F). Extensive solid solution between ThSiO4 and YPO4 was observed. Xenotime is strongly hydrated (up to 16 wt.% H2O), but its F content is low (<0.31 wt.%). Two types of monazite were identified: Th-rich (up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2) in the ZG, and Th-poor (<2.5 wt.% ThO2) in the PG. Monazite remained stable during the hydration and fluorination process. Its REE chondrite-normalized distribution patterns show negative anomalies for La and Nd and a pronounced negative anomaly for Eu. Chemical compositions of several REE oxyfluorides and hydroxyfluorides were studied. REE fluorocarbonates are represented by bastnäsite and synchysite. Bastnäsite is abundant in the ZG. Its chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by an important negative Eu anomaly and downward kinks at La and Nd. Synchysite-(Ce) and synchysite-(Y) are particularly well developed in the deeper parts of the cupola, and exhibit REE distribution patterns characterized by a weak negative Eu anomaly (synchysite-(Ce)), or a weak positive Eu anomaly (synchysite-(Y)). The distribution of accessory minerals reveals five major evolution stages: (1) Early magmatic crystallization of albite and orthoclase. (2) A late magmatic stage comprising protolithionite, quartz, accessory zircon, thorite, xenotime and monazite. (3) Interaction of this magmatic association with a fluid phase rich in F, CO2 and H2O, leading to the transformation protolithionite → zinnwaldite and to the remobilisation of Nb, Ta, Ti, W, Sn. Accessory minerals formed during stage (2) were hydrated and fluorinated, except monazite. (4) The transfer of volatiles into the apical part of the cupola followed by the opening of the magmatic system generated microgranites and hydrolysis-type reactions leading to the appearance of REE oxyfluorides and hydroxyfluorides. (5) A late CO2- and F-rich fluid phase was responsible for the deposition of REE fluorocarbonates. Monazite and xenotime became unstable in the apical part of the cupola. An influx of fluids with high Ca-activity occurred late during stage (5) and led to the formation of synchysite, and finally to the extensive precipitation of fluorite.
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Soumis le : lundi 22 août 2022 - 15:57:45
Dernière modification le : lundi 22 août 2022 - 16:59:40

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Z. Johan, V. Johan. Accessory minerals of the Cinovec (Zinnwald) granite cupola, Czech Republic: indicators of petrogenetic evolution. Mineralogy and Petrology, Springer Verlag, 2005, 83 (1-2), pp.113-150. ⟨10.1007/s00710-004-0058-0⟩. ⟨hal-03757711⟩

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