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Platinum-group minerals from placers related to the Nizhni Tagil (Middle Urals, Russia) Uralian-Alaskan-type ultramafic complex: ore-mineralogy and study of silicate inclusions in (Pt, Fe) alloys

Abstract : The study of platinum-group minerals (PGM) concentrates from the Nizhni Tagil placers related to the Soloviev Mountain (Gora Solovieva) Uralian-Alaskan-type intrusion revealed a predominance of (Pt, Fe) alloys over Ir-, and Os-bearing alloys. (Pt, Fe) alloys (“isoferroplatinum-type”) are interstitial with respect to chromite and show important variations in their chemical compositions, which are, however, falling within the experimentally determined stability field of isoferroplatinum. Tetraferroplatinum, enriched in Cu and Ni and tulameenite represent low-temperature mineral phases replacing (Pt, Fe) alloys. Alloys belonging to the Os–Ir–Ru ternary system have compositions corresponding to native osmium, iridium and ruthenium, respectively, and to rutheniridosmine. Osmium exsolutions appear in Ir-, and (Pt, Fe) alloys, and iridium exsolutions in (Pt, Fe) alloys. Laurite is a high-temperature phase included in native iridium and (Pt, Fe) alloys. Low-temperature PGM association comprises Ir-bearing sulpharsenides, including a phase (Ir, Os, Fe, Pt, Ru, Ni)3(As, Sb)0.85S, and a palladium antimonide Pd20Sb7. These two phases were previously unknown in nature. Furthermore, native palladium occurs in the studied concentrates. This low-temperature paragenesis indicates an interaction of Pt-, Os-, Ir- and Ru-bearing alloys with late fluids enriched in volatiles, As and Sb. The chromite composition is characterized by the predominance of Cr3+ → Fe3+ substitution like in other Uralian-Alaskan-type intrusions; that indicates a fO2 variation during the chromite precipitation. Monomineralic inclusions of euhedral clinopyroxene and chromite crystals in (Pt, Fe) alloys were observed. Furthermore, (Pt, Fe) alloys contain polyphase silicate inclusions, which occupy the alloy negative crystals. Two types of silicate inclusions were recognized: (1) Low-pressure inclusions composed of amphibole, biotite, Jd-poor clinopyroxene, magnetite, apatite and glass; (2) High-pressure inclusions include: omphacitic clinopyroxene (up to 56 mol.% Jd), tremolite, muscovite, apatite, titanite and glass. In this case, the clinopyroxene is strongly zoned, revealing a pressure drop from about 25 to 5 kbar. The chemical composition of glass is corundum-normative and its H2O content varies from about 12 to 15 wt.%. The composition of magmatic melts, from which the silicate inclusions have originated was estimated using EPMA and image analysis interpreted by stereology. Their compositions are close to those obtained experimentally by hydrous partial melting of upper mantle rocks. The interpretation of analytical data shows that magmatic melts entrapped by (Pt, Fe) alloys crystallized from about 1100 to 700 °C. The (Pt, Fe) alloys formed after the crystallization of chromite, clinopyroxene and albite. Consequently, the precipitation temperature of (Pt, Fe) alloys is estimated at about 900 °C. The significant pressure drop implies a decrease of volatile concentrations in the magmatic melt and the possible formation of a fluid phase, which might have generated, the precipitation of chromite and PGM.
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Soumis le : jeudi 18 août 2022 - 11:14:44
Dernière modification le : jeudi 18 août 2022 - 11:25:31

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Z. Johan. Platinum-group minerals from placers related to the Nizhni Tagil (Middle Urals, Russia) Uralian-Alaskan-type ultramafic complex: ore-mineralogy and study of silicate inclusions in (Pt, Fe) alloys. Mineralogy and Petrology, Springer Verlag, 2006, 87 (1-2), pp.1-30. ⟨10.1007/s00710-005-0117-1⟩. ⟨hal-03753363⟩

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