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Regional, multi-decadal analysis on the Loire River basin reveals that stream temperature increases faster than air temperature

Abstract : Stream temperature appears to be increasing globally, but its rate remains poorly constrained due to a paucity of long-term data and difficulty in parsing effects of hydroclimate and landscape variability. Here, we address these issues using the physically based thermal model T-NET (Temperature-NETwork) coupled with the EROS semi-distributed hydrological model to reconstruct past daily stream temperature and streamflow at the scale of the entire Loire River basin in France (105 km2 with 52 278 reaches). Stream temperature increased for almost all reaches in all seasons (mean =+0.38 ∘C decade−1) over the 1963–2019 period. Increases were greatest in spring and summer, with a median increase of + 0.38 ∘C (range =+0.11 to +0.76 ∘C) and +0.44 ∘C (+0.08 to +1.02 ∘C) per decade, respectively. Rates of stream temperature increases were greater than for air temperature across seasons for the majority of reaches. Spring and summer increases were typically greatest in the southern part of the Loire basin (up to +1 ∘C decade−1) and in the largest rivers (Strahler order ≥5). Importantly, air temperature and streamflow could exert a joint influence on stream temperature trends, where the greatest stream temperature increases were accompanied by similar trends in air temperature (up to +0.71 ∘C decade−1) and the greatest decreases in streamflow (up to −16 % decade−1). Indeed, for the majority of reaches, positive stream temperature anomalies exhibited synchrony with positive anomalies in air temperature and negative anomalies in streamflow, highlighting the dual control exerted by these hydroclimatic drivers. Moreover, spring and summer stream temperature, air temperature, and streamflow time series exhibited common change points occurring in the late 1980s, suggesting a temporal coherence between changes in the hydroclimatic drivers and a rapid stream temperature response. Critically, riparian vegetation shading mitigated stream temperature increases by up to 0.16 ∘C decade−1 in smaller streams (i.e. < 30 km from the source). Our results provide strong support for basin-wide increases in stream temperature due to joint effects of rising air temperature and reduced streamflow. We suggest that some of these climate change-induced effects can be mitigated through the restoration and maintenance of riparian forests.
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https://hal-brgm.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03684242
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Soumis le : mercredi 1 juin 2022 - 11:42:42
Dernière modification le : mercredi 15 juin 2022 - 04:22:08

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Hanieh Seyedhashemi, Jean-Philippe Vidal, Jacob Diamond, Dominique Thiéry, Céline Monteil, et al.. Regional, multi-decadal analysis on the Loire River basin reveals that stream temperature increases faster than air temperature. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, European Geosciences Union, 2022, 26 (9), pp.2583-2603. ⟨10.5194/hess-26-2583-2022⟩. ⟨hal-03684242⟩

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