B. W. Alexander, M. Bau, P. Andersson, and P. Dulski, Continentally-derived solutes in shallow Archean sea water; rare earth element and Nd isotope evidence in iron formation from the 2.9 Ga Pongola Supergroup, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, pp.378-394, 2008.

D. S. Alibo and Y. Nozaki, Rare earth elements in seawater: particle association, shalenormalization, and Ce oxidation, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.63, pp.363-372, 1999.

A. C. Allwood, B. S. Kamber, M. R. Walter, I. W. Burch, and I. Kanik, Trace element record depositional history of an Early Archean stromatolitic carbonate platform, Chemical Geology, vol.270, pp.148-163, 2010.

A. E. Armitage, R. S. James, and S. P. Goff, Gold mineralization in Archean banded iron formation, Third Portage Lake area, Northwest Territories, Canada; Exploration and Mining Geology, vol.5, pp.1-15, 1996.

L. B. Aspler and J. R. Chiarenzelli, Stratigraphy, sedimentology and physical volcanology of the Henik Group, central Ennadai-Rankin greenstone belt, Late Archean paleogeography of the Hearne Province and tectonic implications, 1996.

, Precambrian Research, v, vol.77, pp.59-89

S. J. Barnes, G. Heggie, and M. L. Fiorentini, Spatial variation in platinum group element concentrations in ore-bearing komatiite at the Long-Victor deposit, Kambalda Dome, Western Australia: enlarging the footprint of nickel sulfide orebodies, Economic Geology, vol.108, pp.913-933, 2013.

T. J. Barrett, P. W. Fralick, J. , and I. , Rare-earth-element geochemistry of some Archean iron formations north of Lake Superior, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.25, pp.570-580, 1988.

M. Bau, Effects of syn-and post-depositional processes on the rare-earth element distribution in Precambrian iron-formations, 1993.

, European Journal of Mineralogy, issue.5, pp.257-267

M. Bau and P. Dulski, Distribution of Y and rare-earth elements in the Penge and Kuruman Iron Formations, 1996.

, Precambrian Research, vol.79, pp.37-55

M. Bau and P. Dulski, Comparing yttrium and rare earths in hydrothermal fluids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: implications for Y and REE behavior during near-vent mixing and for the Y/Ho ratio of the Proterozoic seawater, Chemical Geology, vol.155, pp.70-90, 1999.

M. Bau, Scavenging of dissolved yttrium and rare-earths by precipitating iron oxyhydroxide: Experimental evidence for Ce oxidation, Y-Ho fractionation, and lanthanide tetrad effect, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.63, issue.1, pp.67-77, 1999.

M. Bau and A. Koschinsky, Oxidative scavenging of cerium on hydrous Fe oxide: Evidence from distribution of rare earth elements and yttrium between Fe oxides and Mn oxides in hydrogenetic ferro manganeses crusts, Geochemical Journal, vol.43, pp.37-47, 2008.

A. Bekker, J. F. Slack, N. Planavsky, B. Krapez, A. Hofmann et al., Iron formation: the sedimentary product of a complex interplay among mantle, tectonic, oceanic and biospheric processes, Economic Geology, issue.105, pp.467-508, 2010.

M. R. Bhatia and K. A. Crook, Trace elements characteristics of graywackes and tectonic setting discrimination of sedimentary basins, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.92, pp.181-193, 1986.

J. Biczok, P. Hollings, P. Klipfel, L. Heaman, R. Maas et al.,

R. Friedman, Geochronology of the North Caribou greenstone belt, Superior Province Canada: Implications for tectonic history and gold mineralization at the Musselwhite mine, 2012.

, Precambrian Research, pp.209-230

R. Bolhar, M. J. Van-kranendonk, and B. S. Kamber, A trace element study of sideritejasper banded iron formation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group, Pilbara craton-Formation from hydrothermal fluids and shallow seawater, Precambrian Research, vol.137, pp.93-114, 2005.

F. W. Breaks, I. A. Osmani, and E. A. Dekemp, Geology of the North Caribou Lake area, northwestern Ontario; Ontario Geological Survey, Open File Report, vol.6023, 2001.

R. L. Carpenter, Relative and absolute timing of supracrustal deposition, tectonothermal activity and gold mineralization, West Meliadine region, vol.362, 2004.

R. L. Carpenter, N. A. Duke, H. A. Sandeman, and R. Stern, Relative and absolute timing of gold mineralization along the Meliadine Trend, Nunavut, Canada; evidence for Paleoproterozoic gold hosted in an Archean greenstone belt.; Economic Geology and the, Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, vol.100, pp.567-576, 2005.

A. Danielson, P. Moeller, and P. Dulski, The europium anomalies in banded iron formations and the thermal history of the oceanic crust, Chemical Geology, pp.89-100, 1992.

W. J. Davis, J. J. Ryan, H. A. Sandeman, T. , and S. , A Paleoprotorozoic detrital zircon age for a key conglomeratic horizon within the Rankin Inlet area, Geological Survey of Canada, vol.10, 2008.

H. J. Debaar, M. Bacon, and P. G. Brewer, Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans; Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.49, pp.1943-1959, 1985.

K. Ding, W. E. Seyfried, Z. Zhang, M. K. Tivey, K. L. Von-damm et al., The in situ pH of hydrothermal fluids at mid-ocean ridge; Earth and Planetary, vol.237, pp.167-174, 2005.

P. Fralick and P. K. Pufahl, Iron formation in Neoarchean deltaic successions and the microbially mediated deposition of transgressive systems tracts, Science Letters, vol.237, pp.167-174, 2006.

, Journal of Sedimentary Research, vol.76, pp.1057-1066

A. M. Goodwin, Archean iron-formations and tectonic basins of the Canadian Shield, 1973.

, Economic Geology, v, vol.68, pp.915-933

B. Gourcerol, P. C. Thurston, D. J. Kontak, and O. Côté-mantha, Interpretations and implications of preliminary LA ICP-MS analysis of chert for the origin of geochemical signatures in banded iron formations (BIFs) from the Meadowbank gold deposit, Chemical Geology, pp.89-107, 2015.

B. Gourcerol, P. C. Thurston, D. J. Kontak, O. Côté-mantha, and J. Biczok, The geochemistry of chert from the Banded Iron Formation-type Musselwhite and Meadowbank gold deposits: Distinguishing primary and mineralization-related signatures of chert: Geological Survey of Canada, 2015.

G. A. Gross, A classification of iron-formations based on depositional environments, 1980.

, Canadian Mineralogist, v, vol.100, pp.1511-1527

R. S. Hall and D. M. Rigg, Gold '86; an international symposium on the geology of gold deposits, pp.124-136, 1986.

J. S. Hanor and K. C. Duchac, Isovolumetric silicification of early Archean komatiites, 1990.

, geochemical mass balances and constraints on origin, Journal of Geology, vol.98, pp.863-877

J. Hoefs, Stable isotope geochemistry, vol.6, p.293, 2009.

H. D. Holland, The geologic history of seawater, pp.583-625, 2003.

P. Hollings and R. Kerrich, Trace element systematics of ultramafic and mafic volcanic rocks from the 3 Ga North Caribou greenstone belt, northwestern Superior Province, Precambrian Research, issue.93, pp.257-279, 1999.

R. B. Hrabi, W. A. Barclay, D. Fleming, and R. B. Alexander, Structural evolution of the Woodburn Lake group in the area of the Meadowbank gold deposit, Nunavut; In Current Research 2003-C27, Geological Survey of Canada, vol.10, 2003.

H. L. James, Sedimentary facies iron-formation; Economic Geology, vol.49, pp.235-293, 1954.

V. Janvier, S. Castonguay, P. Mercier-langevin, B. Dubé, V. Mcnicoll et al., Preliminary results of geology of the Portage deposit, Geological Survey of Canada, 2015.

B. S. Kamber, R. Bolhar, and G. E. Webb, Geochemistry of late Archean stromatolites from Zimbabwe: evidence for microbial life in restricted epicontinental seas, vol.132, pp.379-399, 2004.

B. S. Kamber, A. Greig, and K. D. Collerson, A new estimate for the composition of weathered young upper continental crust from alluvial sediments, 2005.

, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.69, pp.1041-1058

B. S. Kamber and G. E. Webb, Transition metal abundances in microbial carbonate: a pilot study based on in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis, Geobiology, issue.5, pp.375-389, 2007.

B. S. Kamber, G. E. Webb, and M. Gallagher, The rare earth element signal in Archaean microbial carbonate: information on ocean redox and biogenicity, Journal of the Geological Society, vol.171, pp.745-763, 2014.

A. Kappler, C. Pasquero, K. O. Konhauser, and D. K. Newman, Deposition of banded iron formations by anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, Geology, vol.33, pp.865-868, 2005.

I. Kawabe, A. Ohta, S. Ishii, M. Tokumura, and K. Miyauchi, REE partitioning between Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitates and weakly acid NaCl solutions: Convex tetrad effect and fractionation of Y and Sc from heavy lanthanides, Geochemical Journal, vol.33, pp.167-179, 1999.

I. Kawabe, Calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation in quartz-water system with special reference to the low temperature fractionation, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.42, pp.613-621, 1978.

I. Kita, S. Taguchi, and O. Matsubaya, Oxygen isotope fractionation between amorphous silica and water at 34-93°C. Nature, v. 314, pp.83-84, 1985.

C. Klein, Some Precambrian banded iron-formation (BIFs) from around the world: Their age, geologic settings, mineralogy, metamorphism, geochemistry, and origin, 2005.

, American Mineralogist, v, vol.90, pp.1473-1499

L. P. Knauth and D. R. Lowe, Oxygen isotope geochemistry of cherts from Onverwacht Group (3.4 billion years), Transvaal, South-Africa, with implications for secular variations in isotopic composition of cherts, Earth Planetary Science Letter, pp.209-222, 1978.

L. P. Knauth, Petrogenesis of chert, Silica: Physical Behavior, 1994.

L. P. Knauth and D. R. Lowe, High Archean climatic temperature inferred from oxygen isotope geochemistry of chert in the 3.5 Ga Swaziland Supergroup, vol.115, pp.566-580, 2003.

O. K. Konhauser, D. K. Newman, and A. Kappler, The potential significance of microbial, 2005.

F. , III) reduction during deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations, Geobiology, issue.3, pp.167-177

D. U. Kresz and B. Zayachivsky, Precambrian Geology, northern Long Lac area, Ontario Geological Survey, 1991.

L. R. Kump and W. E. Seyfried, Hydrothermal Fe fluxes during the Precambrian: effect of low oceanic sulfate concentrations and low hydrostatic pressure on the composition of black smokers, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.235, pp.654-662, 2005.

B. Lafrance, J. C. Dewolfe, and G. M. Stott, A structural reappraisal of the Beardmore, 2004.

, Geraldton Belt at the southern boundary of the Wabigoon subprovince, Ontario, and implications for gold mineralization, Canadian Journal Earth Sciences, pp.217-235

C. J. Lawley, B. Dubé, P. Mercier-langevin, B. Kjarsgaard, R. Knight et al., Defining and mapping hydrothermal footprints at the BIF-hosted, 2015.

. Meliadine-gold-district, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, vol.155, pp.33-55

M. G. Lawrence and B. S. Kamber, The behavior of the rare earth elements during estuarine mixing-revisited, 2006.

, Marine Chemistry, v, vol.100, pp.147-161

A. C. Lawson, Report on the geology of the Lake of the Woods region, with special reference to the Keewatin (Huronian?) belt of the Archean rocks; Geological Survey of Canada, p.1885

C. Lécuyer and P. Allemand, Modelling of the oxygen isotopes evolution of seawater: implications for the climate interpretation of the ? 18 O of marine sediments, 1999.

, Cosmochimica Acta, v, vol.63, pp.351-361

H. P. Longerich, S. E. Jackson, and D. Gunther, Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric transient signal data acquisition and analyte concentration calculation, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, issue.11, pp.899-904, 1996.

W. O. Mackasey, G. R. Edwards, and D. F. Cape, Legault Township, District of Thunder Bay; Ontario Division of Mines, Preliminary Map P-1191, 1976.

J. Marin, M. Chaussidon, and F. Robert, Microscale oxygen isotope variations in 1.9 Ga Gunflint cherts: assessments of diagenesis effects and implications for oceanic paleo-temperature reconstructions; Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.74, pp.116-130, 2010.

J. Marin-carbonne, M. Chaussidon, R. , and F. , Micrometer-scale chemical an isotopic criteria (O an Si) on the origin and history of Precambrian cherts: Implications for paleotemperature reconstructions, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.92, pp.129-147, 2010.

J. Marin-carbonne, M. Chaussidon, M. C. Boiron, and F. Robert, A combined in situ oxygen, silicon isotopic and fluid inclusion study of a chert sample from Onverwacht Group, 2011.

. Ga, South Africa): new constraints on fluid circulation, Chemical Geology, vol.286, pp.59-71

J. Marin-carbonne, M. Chaussidon, and F. Robert, Micrometer-scale chemical and isotopic criteria (O and Si) on the origin and history of Precambrian cherts: implications for paleo-temperature reconstructions; Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.92, pp.129-147, 2012.

J. Marin-carbonne, F. Faure, M. Chaussidon, D. Jacob, and F. Robert, A petrographic and isotopic criterion of the state of preservation of Precambriancherts based on the characterization of the quartz veins, vol.231, pp.290-300, 2013.

J. Marin-carbonne, F. Robert, and M. Chaussidon, The silicon and oxygen isotope compositions of Precambrian cherts: A record of oceanic paleo-temperatures?, vol.247, pp.223-234, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01769048

A. Masuda and Y. Ikeuchi, Lanthanide tetrad effect observed in marine environment, 1979.

, Geochemical Journal, v, vol.13, pp.19-22

A. Masuda, O. Kawakami, Y. Dohmoto, and T. Takenaka, Lanthanide tetrad effects in nature: two mutually opposite types, W and M, Geochemical Journal, vol.21, pp.119-124, 1987.

Y. Matsuhisa, J. R. Goldsmith, C. , and R. N. , Oxygen isotopic fractionation in the system quartz-albite-anorthite-water, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.43, pp.1131-1140, 1979.

S. M. Mclennan, S. Hemming, D. K. Mcdaniel, and G. N. Hanson, Geochemical approaches to sedimentation, provenance and tectonics, vol.284, pp.21-40, 1993.

V. Mcnicoll, B. Dubé, J. Biczok, S. Castonguay, W. Oswald et al., new high-precision U-Pb ages and their impact on the geological and structural setting of the deposit, Abstract, Geol. Assoc. of Canada annual meeting, 2013.

M. Minami, A. Masuda, K. Takahashi, M. Adachi, and H. Shimizu, Y-Ho fractionation and lanthanide tetrad effect observed in cherts, Geochemical Journal, vol.32, pp.405-419, 1998.

P. Moran, Lithogeochemistry of the sedimentary stratigraphy and metasomatic alteration in the Musselwhite gold deposit. North Caribou Lake metavolcanic-metasedimentary belt, Superior Province, Canada: implications for deposition and mineralization, vol.351, 2008.

H. Ohmoto, Y. Watanabe, K. E. Yamaguchi, H. Naraoka, M. Haruna et al., Chemical and biological evolution of early Earth: Constraints from banded iron formations, vol.198, pp.291-331, 2006.

W. Oswald, S. Castonguay, B. Dubé, V. J. Mcnicoll, J. Biczok et al.,

P. Langevin, Geological setting of the world-class Musselwhite gold Mine, Superior Province, northwestern Ontario, and implications for exploration, Contributions to the Understanding of Precambrian Lode Gold Deposits and Implications for Exploration, vol.4, 2015.

, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7852, pp.69-84

A. Otto, Ore forming processes in the BIF-hosted gold deposit Musselwhite Mine, vol.86, 2002.

S. J. Pehrsson, L. Wilkinson, and E. Zaleski, Geology of the Meadowbank gold deposit area, Nunavut; Geological Survey of Canada, Open File, vol.4269, 2004.

S. J. Pehrsson, R. G. Berman, and W. J. Davis, Paleoproterozoic orogenesis during Nuna aggregation: a case study of reworking of the Rae craton, 2013.

, Precambrian Research, v, vol.232, pp.167-188

N. Planavsky, A. Bekker, O. J. Rouxel, B. S. Kamber, A. W. Hofmann et al., Rare Earth Element and yttrium compositions of Archean and, 2010.

, Paleoproterozoic Fe formations revisited: New perspectives on the significance and mechanisms of deposition, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.74, pp.6387-6405

N. R. Posth, I. Kohler, E. D. Swanner, C. Schroder, E. Wellmann et al., Simulating Precambrian banded iron formation diagenesis, Chemical Geology, vol.362, pp.66-73, 2013.

P. K. Pufahl, F. Pirajno, and E. E. Hiatt, Riverine mixing and fluvial iron formation: A new type of Precambrian biochemical sediment, Geology, vol.12, pp.1235-1238, 2013.

F. Robert and M. Chaussidon, A palaeo-temperature curve for the Precambrian oceans based on silicon isotopes in cherts, Nature, vol.443, pp.969-972, 2006.

W. S. Shanks, Geology of Eva and Summer Townships, District of Thunder Bay, 1993.

R. Sherlock, S. Pehrsson, A. V. Logan, R. B. Hrabi, and W. J. Davis, Geologic setting of the Meadowbank gold deposits, pp.67-107, 2004.

R. L. Sherlock, R. B. Alexander, R. March, and W. A. Barclay, Geologic setting of the Meadowbank iron formation-hosted gold deposits; In Current Research 2001-C11, Geological Survey of Canada, vol.23, 2001.

R. L. Sherlock, R. B. Alexander, R. March, and W. A. Barclay, Geologic setting of the Meadowbank iron formation-hosted gold deposits; Geological Survey of Canada, Open File, vol.3149, 2001.

T. Shibuya, T. Komiya, K. Nakamura, K. Takai, and S. Maruyama, Highly alkaline, high-temperature hydrothermal fluids in the early Archean ocean, 2010.

, Precambrian Research, vol.182, pp.230-238

H. P. Taylor, The application of oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies to problems of hydrothermal alteration and ore deposition, Economic Geology, vol.69, pp.843-883, 1974.

H. P. Taylor, Oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies of plutonic granitic rocks, Earth Planetary Science Letter, vol.38, pp.177-210, 1978.

S. Tella, D. Paul, R. G. Berman, W. J. Davis, T. D. Peterson et al., Bedrock geology compilation and regional synthesis of parts of Hearne and Rae domains, 2007.

, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File, vol.5441

Z. Tóth, B. Lafrance, B. Dube, V. J. Mcnicoll, P. Mercier-langevin et al., Banded iron formation-hosted gold mineralization in the Geraldton area, northwestern Ontario: Structural setting, mineralogical characteristics, and geochronology, Contributions to the Understanding of Precambrian Lode Gold Deposits and Implications for Exploration, vol.4, 2015.

, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7852, pp.85-97

P. C. Thurston and K. M. Chivers, Secular variation in greenstone sequence development emphasizing Superior Province, Canada, vol.46, pp.21-58, 1990.

P. C. Thurston, J. A. Ayer, J. Goutier, and M. A. Hamilton, Depositional gaps in Abitibi greenstone belt stratigraphy: a key to exploration for syngenetic mineralization; Economic geology, pp.1097-1134, 2008.

P. C. Thurston, B. S. Kamber, and M. Whitehouse, Archean cherts in banded iron formation: Insight into Neoarchean ocean chemistry and depositional processes, pp.227-257, 2012.

K. Y. Tomlinson, R. P. Hall, D. J. Hughes, and P. C. Thurston, Geochemistry and assemblage accretion of metavolcanic rocks in the Beardmore-Geraldton greenstone belt, Superior Province, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.33, pp.1520-1533, 1996.

M. J. Van-kranendonk, W. Altermann, B. L. Beard, P. F. Hoffman, C. J. Johnson et al., A chronostratigraphic division of the Precambrian ; possibilities and challenges, The Geologic Time Scale, pp.299-338, 2012.

S. Vearncombe and R. Kerrich, Geochemistry and Geodynamic setting of volcanic and plutonic rocks associated with early Archean volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralization, Pilbara Craton, vol.98, pp.243-270, 1999.

J. Veizer, The evolving exogenic cycle, pp.175-218, 1988.

F. Westall, K. A. Campbell, J. G. Bréhéret, F. Foucher, P. Gautret et al.,

N. Grassineau and D. M. Guido, Archean (3.33 Ga) microbe-sediment systems were diverse and flourished in a hydrothermal context, Geology, vol.43, pp.615-618, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01167397

G. E. Webb, L. D. Nothdurft, B. S. Kamber, J. T. Kloprogge, and J. X. Zhao, Rare earth element geochemistry of scleractinian coral skeleton duringmeteoric diagenesis: A sequence through neomorphism of aragonite to calcite, 2009.

V. Sedimentology, , vol.56, pp.1433-1463

G. M. Wright, Geology of the southeastern barren grounds, Parts of the Districts of Mackenzie and Keewatin. Geological Survey of Canada, Memoire, vol.350, 1967.