Numerical modeling of geothermal systems

Abstract : The purpose of our study is to model a geothermal reservoir. When geothermal reservoir are assumed to be composed of pure water, the transfer of mass and energy is classically described by two balance equations: mass balance equation and the energy balance equation. In addition to those equations, fluid velocity ist classically given by the Darcy law while thermodynamic properties, inferred from theoretical or empirical equations of state, are used to close the mathematical system. Once this system is closed, there exist different solutions. The first one is to solve for pressure and temperature with a variable switch to saturation in the two-phase region (e.g. TOUGH2). The second one is to solve for pressure and enthalpy to increase stability of phase transition between single and two-phase states (e.g. Hydrotherm). We adopted the second option and chose te use a splitting method to get rid of the complexity of coupling equations and a finite volume method for the spatial discretization. Selecting object-oriented languages, we developed a multi-language framework, combining Python, Fortran and a C++ implementation of IAPWS (from the freesteam project) including the supercritical equations, in porous media velocity is given by Darcy law and to close the system physical properties are determined by the IAPWS-IF97 thermodynamic formulation. We resolve the equations in pressure and enthalpy instead of pressure and temperature in order to increase stability and to handle easier the passage from a single-phase to a two-phase system. We solve the system by using a splitting method - to get rid of the complexity of coupling equations - and a finite volume method. We offer some freedom to users thanks to the implementation of several methods like explicit or implicit Euler, Runge-Kutta or BDF2 for time solvers or GMRES and BICGSTAB for the linear solver. We can handle several boundary conditions like no-flow - describing a boundary which can not exchange matter with the exterior - or like a mixed-therm condition - a Dirichlet condition to the pressure and a Dirichlet or an outflow condition to the temperature in order to describe a recharge or a discharge zone - ... We're developing a multi-language framework, combining Python, Fortran and the C++ implementation of IAPWS (from the freesteam project). All these languages are object-oriented. We've applied this simulation model to the dogger in Paris, France, to several one-dimensional systems and a two-dimensional one made by Coumou with the CSMP++ platform. The dogger is a reservoir exploited to produce heat by pumping water at 70 and reinjecting it in the reservoir at 40. In the one-dimensional systems we wanted to observe the process of heat transfer from a higher temperature boundary to a smaller one in a high-energy domain. The last simulation shows the natural convection of water in a fault. For every simulation we compared the solutions we found with an other code (TOUGH2 or CSMP++) and they agreed. The next step will be to model the geothermal plant in Guadeloupe, West Indies. It's the only place in France - and in the West Indies so far - producing electricity with the earth power. The temperature can reach up to 1000 and the pressure range is around a few hundreds MPa. In some surface zones we can see two-phase water at atmospheric pressure. In the 1980s Bouillante was a laboratory for France. Since 1995 Bouillante has given 30GWh electricity a year to the Guadeloupeans.
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Communication dans un congrès
39th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Feb 2014, Stanford, United States. pp.SGP-TR-202, 2014
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Cédrick Copol, Jacques Laminie, Simon Lopez. Numerical modeling of geothermal systems. 39th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Feb 2014, Stanford, United States. pp.SGP-TR-202, 2014. 〈hal-00944133〉

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