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Formation of Pesticide Nonextractable (Bound) Residues in Soil: Magnitude, Controlling Factors and Reversibility

Abstract : The analysis of the coherent data on nonextractable (bound) residues (NER) from the literature and EU pesticide registration dossiers allows the identification of general trends, in spite of the large variability and heterogeneity of data. About 50% of the pesticides reviewed exhibit a low proportion of NER (less than 30% of the initial amount) while only 12% of pesticides have a proportion of NER exceeding 70%. The lowest proportion of NER was found for dinitroanilines (<20%), and the largest value was obtained for carbamates, and in particular dithiocarbamates. The presence of chemical reactive groups, such as aniline or phenol, tends to yield a larger proportion of NER. NER originating from N-heteroatomic ring were found to be lower than those from phenyl-ring structures. Among the environmental factors affecting the formation of NER, microbial activity has a direct and significant effect. Concerning the NER uptake or their bioavailability, consistent data suggest that only a small percentage of the total amounts of NER can be released. The analysis of NER formation kinetics showed that incubation experiments are often stopped too early to allow a correct evaluation of the NER maturation phase. Therefore, there is a need for longer term experiments to evaluate the tail of the NER formation kinetics. Still, the heterogeneity of the NER data between pesticides and for specific pesticides calls for great care in the interpretation of the data and their generalization.
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Soumis le : lundi 14 novembre 2011 - 16:17:49
Dernière modification le : vendredi 5 août 2022 - 14:38:10

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Enrique Barriuso, Pierre Benoit, Igor G. Dubus. Formation of Pesticide Nonextractable (Bound) Residues in Soil: Magnitude, Controlling Factors and Reversibility. Environmental Science and Technology, 2008, 42 (6), pp.1845-1854. ⟨10.1021/es7021736⟩. ⟨hal-00641026⟩



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