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Magnetic flux structuring of the quiet Sun internetwork: Center-to-limb analysis of solar-cycle variations

Abstract : Context. The small-scale magnetism of the quiet Sun has been investigated by various means in recent decades. It is now well established that the quiet Sun contains in total more magnetic flux than active regions and represents an important reservoir of magnetic energy. But the nature and evolution of these fields remain largely unknown.Aims. We investigate the solar-cycle and center-to-limb variations of magnetic-flux structures at small scales in internetwork regions of the quiet Sun.Methods. We used Hinode SOT/SP data from the irradiance program between 2008 and 2016. Maps of the magnetic-flux density are derived from the center-of gravity method applied to the circular polarization profiles in the FeI 630.15 nm and FeI 630.25 nm lines. To correct the maps from the instrumental smearing of the telescope, we applied a deconvolution method based on a principal component analysis of the line profiles and on a Richardson-Lucy deconvolution of their coefficients. We took defocus effects and the diffraction of the SOT telescope into account. We then performed a spectral analysis of the spatial fluctuations of the magnetic-flux density in 10″ × 10″ internetwork regions spanning a wide range of latitudes from ±70° to the equator.Results. At low and mid latitudes the power spectra normalized by the mean value of the unsigned flux in the regions do not vary significantly with the solar cycle. However at solar maximum for one scan in the activity belt showing an enhanced network, a marginal increase in the power of the magnetic fluctuations is observed at granular and larger scales in the internetwork. At high latitudes, we observe variations at granular and larger scales where the power decreases at solar maximum. At all the latitudes the power of the magnetic fluctuations at scales smaller than 0.5″ remains constant throughout the solar cycle.Conclusions. At the equator the unsigned flux density is related to the vertical component of the magnetic field, whereas at high latitudes this flux density is mainly related to the horizontal component and probe higher altitudes. Our results favor a small-scale dynamo that operates in the internetwork, but they show that the global dynamo also contributes to the internetwork fields. At solar maximum the high-latitude horizontal internetwork fields seem to be depleted from the structures at granular and larger scales that are seen at solar minimum, whereas the internetwork within enhanced network regions show more structures at those scales than at solar minimum.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03296050
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 22, 2021 - 3:31:32 PM
Last modification on : Friday, July 23, 2021 - 3:50:51 AM

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M. Faurobert, G. Ricort. Magnetic flux structuring of the quiet Sun internetwork: Center-to-limb analysis of solar-cycle variations. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2021, 651, pp.A21. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202140705⟩. ⟨hal-03296050⟩

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